### Fluid Mechanics

 FLUID PROPERTIES Define fluid. A Fluid is a substance that deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress no matter how small that shear stress may be. Differentiate solid and fluid. Fluid The fluid deforms continuously when subjected to a shear stress. When the shear stress disappears the fluid never regain in to original shape. . Solid The Solid deforms a definite amount when subjected to a shear stress When the shear stress disappears solids gain fully or partly their original shape. Define density. Density is defined as the mass of a substance per unit volume. If a fluid element enclosing a point P has a volume dV and dm , then the density is given by r = lim dV - 0 (dm / dV) = (dm / dV) The unit of density is kg/m3 . Define specific volume,. Specific volume is defined as the reciprocal of density that is volume capacity per unit mass of fluid Vs = ( 1 / r) = ( dV / dm ) The unit of sp. Volume is m3/kg Define specific weight. Specific weight is the weight of the fluid per unit volume. g = ( weight / volume) = ( m g / v) = r g The unit of specific weight is N/m3. Define specific gravity (SG). Specific gravity is the ratio of mass density (or) weight density of the fluid to the mass density (or) weight density of the standard fluid. For liquids, water at 4oc is considered as standard fluid. A liquid has a specific gravity of 1.527 what are the values of specific weight and specific volume ? Specific gravity of a liquid (SG) = Sp. Weight (or) weight density of liquid / Sp. Weight (or) weight density of std liquid The standard liquid is water and its specific weight = r g = 1000 x 9.81 = 9810 N/m3 The specific weight of the liquid = 9810 x 1.527 = 14979.8 N/m3. Density of the liquid ( r ) = 14979.8 / 9.81 = 1527 kg/ m3. Specific volume of liquid = 1 /r = 1 / 1527 = 6.54 x 10 –4 m3/kg. Define viscosity. The viscosity can be defined as the property of fluid which resist relative motion of its adjacent layers. It is the measure of internal fluid friction due to which there is resistance to flow, The unit of viscosity is Ns/m2. State Newton’s law of viscosity. (AU-MQP) The shear stress on a fluid element layer is directly proportional to the rate of strain (or) velocity gradient, the constant of proportionality being called the coefficient of viscosity. t a (du / dy) shear stress ( t ) = m (du / dy) what is real fluid ? Give examples. (AU-M03). The fluids in reality have viscosity m > 0 hence they are termed as real fluids and their motion is known as viscous flow. (ex) Air , water, kerosene, blood, milk Why are some fluids are classified as Newtonian fluid ? Give examples of Newtonian fluids. (AU-N02). The fluids, which obey Newton’s law of viscosity are known as Newtonian fluids. For these fluids, there is a linear relationship between shear stress and velocity gradient. (ex) Air, water, kerosene. What is a Tthyxotropic fluid ? (AU- N 03) If the viscosity increases with time the fluid is said to be a Thyxotropic fluid. (ex) Lipstick, paints enamels, crude oil. What is a Rheopectic fluid ? If the viscosity decreases with time the fluid is said to be Rheopectic fluid. (ex) gypsum suspension, bentonite clay solution. What is effect of temperature on viscosity of water and air ? *The viscosity of water decreases with increase in temperature. *The viscosity of air increases with increase in temperature. Define kinematic viscosity and gives its uint. Kinematic viscosity is defined as the ratio of dynamic viscosity to density. n = m / r The unit of kinematic viscosity is m2/s What is compressibility of fluid ? Compressibility of substance is the measure of its change in volume under the action of external forces, namely, the normal compressive forces. The measure of compressibility of the fluid is the bulk modulus of elasticity (K) K = lim DV - 0 (- DP) / (DV/V) The unit of compressibility is N/m2 Assuming the bulk modulus of elasticity of water is 2.07 x 106 kN/m2 at standard atmospheric condition. Determine the increase of pressure necessary to produce one percent reduction in volume at same temperature. (AU-N02) Bulk modulus of elasticity K = 2.07 x 106 kN/m2 - (dV/V) = 1% = 0.01 K = - dP / (dV/V) \ Increase in pressure dP = -(dV/V) x K = 0.01 x 2.07 x 106 = 20700 kN/m2. What is meant by vapor pressure of a liquid ? Liquids evaporate because of molecule s escaping from the liquid surface. These vapor molecules exert a partial pressure on the surface of the liquid known as vapour pressure. What is cavitation ? In flowing fluid, if the pressure is equal to or less than the saturated vapor pressure, the liquid boil locally and produce vapor bubbles. These bubbles collapse in the high pressure region causing a partial vaccum. This phenomenon in known as cavitation. Define surface tension and mention its unit. A free surface of the liquid is always under stretched condition implying the existence of tensile force on the surface. The magnitude of this force per unit length of an imaginary line drawn along the liquid surface is known as surface tension. The unit of surface tension is N/m. Define capillarity. (AU-M04) Capillary implies the raise or depression of liquid in a capillary tube where it is held vertically or inclined in the liquid. Define the pressure and mention its unit. If the fluid is stationary, then the force (dF) exerted by the fluid on the area is normal to the surface (dA). This normal force per unit area is called pressure.. P = ( dF / dA) The unit of pressure is N/m2. What should be the depth of oil of specific gravity 0.8, if it has exerted a pressure of 480N/m2 ? Specific gravity (SG) = 0.8 \ density = 800 kg/m3 The pressure = r g z depth z = P/(r g) = 480 x 103 / (800 x 9.81) = 61.16 m Express 3m of water head in cm of mercury. rm gm Hm = rw gw Hw 13600 x Hm = 1000 x 3 Hm = 0.22 m of Hg Differentiate between absolute and gauge pressure. Absolute pressure is measured as a pressure above absolute zero Gauge pressure is measured as a pressure below atmospheric pressure Gauge pressure = Absolute pressure - Atmospheric pressure What do you mean by vacuum pressure ? If the pressure is less than the local atmospheric pressure it is called as vacuum pressure. Vacuum pressure = Atmospheric pressure - Absolute pressure What is a manometer ? Name the common fluids used in it. A manometer is a transparent tube containing a liquid of known density used for the purpose of measuring the fluid pressure. The common fluids used are mercury, alcohol. Differentiate between simple manometer and differential manometer. Simple manometer In simple manometer, one end is connected to the point at which the pressure is to be measured and the other end is open to atmosphere. Differential manometer In differential manometer, two ends are connected to the points whose ‘difference of pressure’ is to be measured. What is micro-manometer ? Where is it used ? In this manometer a large difference in meniscus levels are obtained for very small pressure difference. This manometer is useful for precise measurement of pressure difference.